Alcoholism is the most severe form of alcohol abuse and involves the inability to manage drinking habits. The data was compiled that an individual over the age of 15 and above, consumes alcohol. According to the report 30%of total population of India consumed alcohol in the year 2010. The report also states that in 2012, above 3.3 million deaths attributed were of alcohol consumption. While seeing causes of alcoholism, it is mainly due to stressful life, any mental problem, may be due to family environment etc. Alcoholism can cause major health problems including cirrhosis of liver, diabetes mellitus, anemia, cancer, and cardio vascular disease (CVD) etc…Among this, diabetes mellitus is the one of the most common disease found in India. It is an endocrine disorder characterized by attenuated insulin signaling and decreased cellular responsiveness to insulin. Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is about 2.4% in rural population and 11.6% in urban population.
Alcoholism and vitamin B6 deficiency
The alcohol which is consumed in the form of ethyl alcohol which is broken down and converted into acetaldehyde. This acetaldehyde is toxic molecule, interfere with the enzymes binding pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP, which is phosphorylated B6) thereby releases PLP and degrade rapidly in erythrocytes which finally leads to vitamin B6 deficiency in the body.
Vitamin B6 and Diabetes :
PLP is used in glycogenolysis. That is the key enzyme of glycogenolysis is glycogen phosphorylase which is aided by PLP. Alcohol consumption leads to deficiency of PLP which interfere with glycogenolysis and thereby prevents the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the body especially in liver and muscles.
Brain glycogen inhibition → Reduction in glutamate synthesis --B6 deficiency→GABA reduction.
Reduced glutamate and GABA level worsens the insulin signaling. GABA reduction leads to increased release of inflammatory molecules, it may weaken and even kill beta cells. Along with this, it also increases the homocysteine level in the blood, which increases the risk of CVD especially hyper tension, atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, blood clots Etc………………….
Vitamin b6 deficiency also leads to niacin deficiency. Niacin is a vitamin which helps to convert glucose to pyruvate. This deficiency interfere in the glucose utilization by the cell.
So it is found that alcohol is the separate risk factor for DM. Who consumes alcohol daily more than 180 ml. are at more risk .
B-vitamins are particularly important in this regard and are generally depleted after a period of drug or alcohol abuse, and 50 mg daily of a B-complex is effective. Sources are spinach, sunflower seeds, bananas, avocados, dried nuts especially raisins, nuts, fish such as salmon, tuna and sweet potatos .
Chromium plays an important role in stabilizing blood sugar and thus alleviates cravings: 200 mcg two or three times daily is a common recommendation. Rich in grape juice, potatoes,barley and broccoli etc…
The amino acid L-glutamine (500 mg) three times a day on an empty stomach will improve energy levels and stabilize mood, both of which can fluctuate for long periods, both during the period of immediate withdrawal and in the post-acute withdrawal period that can last for up to a year. Sources are nuts, egg, cabbage, beans and sea foods.
The serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan will help with depression and anxiety, and should be taken three times daily (100 mg) on empty stomach; this should not be taken along with serotonin-affecting anti-depressant or anti-anxiety medications.
Niacin (vitamin B3) was strongly recommended for alcoholism in the days of alcohol abuse, can be taken 500 mg twice a day.
N-acetyl-cysteine, a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, increases levels of glutathione, which may be the most important antioxidant, and has been a beneficial adjunct for treatment of drug addiction. The usual dose is 300 mg three times daily. Vitamin C also increases glutathione levels, and augments antioxidant effects as well as detoxification at recommended dose of 1000 mg three times a day.
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a potent liver regenerator and supporter of detoxification, and can be taken 250 mg two or three times a day; a product standardized to an extract of 85% silymarin,the plant’s chief active ingredient, recommended.
Superfoods or green food supplements like the bacterial extract spirulina or the algae chlorella are plants but make their food by photosynthesis as plants do, and are advocated for support of detoxification as well as their nutritional content. Anxiety is one of the predisposing factors for alcoholism and drug addiction and frequently occurs in recovery.
“Smoking is harmful, drinking is disgusting and to die young is pity”
By, Ms. PRIYADHARSINI. S
IV BNYS 'A'